Characteristics of Mango
Mango, known as the “tropical fruit king”, is the common fruit in most continents, especially in Asia, Africa, and South America. In 2014, the annual output of mango is more than 45 million MT and ranks the 7th in global fruit production. Rich in Vitamin C, folate and dietary fiber, mango is not only as a nutrient source but also as an important source of livelihood for people in the tropics. However, with characteristics of short harvest time, limited storage life, and transportation difficulty, fresh mango is normally processed industrially into chutney, pickles, curries, canned or frozen slices, puree, beverages and various dried mango products to extend its preservation time and enrich fruit market throughout the year.
Mango Products Processing Industry
Present problems and solutions
In mango processing industry, lots of factors will affect mango processing quality and hence affect the total profits. The following questions & answers would help you know more about mango industry:
1. Q: Can green mango which dropped from trees be preserved by pickling?
A: Green mango pickling is a traditional flavoring method. the seasonings for pickling are usually salt, sugar, and hot spices. Pickled mango needs to be consumed quickly, or it should be preserved in a refrigerator. Low temperature and dry air are the keys to preserve pickled mango which can slow down mango’s rotten time to some extent.
2. Q: How to differentiate mango puree, pulp and concentrate?
A: Mango concentrate refers to the original juice which is water removed. After concentrating, the processed product is easier for long distance transportation. Mango puree contains pulp, juice, etc except the stone (seed) & skin, it is highly blended to a smooth consistency. Mango puree retains natural fiber and some phytonutrients which is more nutritional than juice. Mango pulp is defined as stringy solids which the juice has been squeezed out.
3. Q: Which variety is suitable for mango processing and further processing?
A: Mango variety and different maturing stages of mango will affect its processing product’s quality. Here is a list of top 10 stabilized varieties which rank in descending order of commercial importance in the producing area: Tommy Atkins, Kent, Keitt, Palmer, Amélie, Valencia, Haden, Irwin, Osteen, Alphonso and so on. Please note: Each country’s suitable variety for cultivation is different, and the same variety may appear different characters in different cultivated countries. For example, the above top 5 mango varieties have been grown widely in Latin America and Africa, while Osteen and Alphonso’s varieties are exclusively cultivated in Spain and India, respectively.
4. Q: What advanced technologies are applied in mango drying process?
A: Dried mango processing technology is one of the oldest methods for preserving mango by reducing its water content. Industrial hot air drying method could not only prolong mango’s shelf life but also add value to mango products, resulting in the increasing income of small-scale farmers and processors. In factory production, dried mango processing steps include material selecting, washing, peeling and coring, cutting, blanching, drying and packing.
Here are operating points of dried mango slices:
√ Material selecting: Choose whole, plump mango fruit without mechanical damage, free of pests and fresh in appearance. It’s better to use the variety with high dry matter content, with small & flat core and less fiber, and material’s grade of maturity should be 80-90%. Then, trim both ends of mango and put them on the conveyor belt.
√ Washing: Trimmed mango on the belt would be conveyed to Fruit Vegetable Air Bubble Washing Machine. Air bubble washing machine is suitable for soaking, washing and removing dirt/pesticide residue of mango fruit under the multiple functions of integrating bubble, blast and spray cleaning methods.
√ Peeling and coring: Mango needs to be peeled because its skin contains tannin which causes mango browning and affects product quality. Mango peel and scar would be removed by Multifunctional Fruit Peeling Machine, and the machine could be equipped with stoning device which can complete fruit peeling, stoning and separating steps in one machine, high efficient and automatic. After stoning, mango cores with the remaining pulp can be further crushed by Mango Juice Machine to collect more juice.
√ Cutting: In order to get a uniform quality, it’s better to cut mango lengthways into 8~10mm-thick slices.
√ Blanching: Blanching helps to sterilize and color fixing mango slices. After blanching at 70—80℃ hot water for 15 seconds, the enzyme activity is inhibited and mango is kept in its original color. With Fruit Blanching Machine, the quality of the product is improved by inhibiting the enzyme, removing a strange taste and color fixing. After blanching, mango needs to be placed on the plate evenly for draining water and preparing for drying.
√ Drying: With the help of Hot Air Circulation Fruit Drying Machine, you just need to put the plate on the drying vehicle and pull the vehicle into drying chamber and set temperature, the initial temperature could be controlled at 70 ~ 75℃ and the post-period temperature is 60～65℃. Hot air drying is a major way of processing agricultural and sideline products, its working principle is blowing the hot air into the chamber to heat the material and speeds up the flow of air so that the water is quickly taken away and mango slices will be dried. It is a low cost, versatile and simple method. Please note: you can flip over mango slices during drying, and the processing time is depended on the required moisture content after drying, usually about 15%~18%.
√ Packing: After drying, place dried mango slices in the sealed container for 2-3 days so that all parts of mango has a balanced water content and soft texture for convenient packaging, usually in sealed bags.
Mango Products Varieties
Mango products preserve mango nutrition and enlarge storage time, which are highly liked by people. Here are the most popular mango products:
|Product name||Material variety||Manufacturing process||Edible methods|
|Mango pickles||Green, semi-ripe mango||Mangoes are washed, peeled, cut, pickled with oil and spices.||Serve with rice, paratha, dosa, etc.|
|Mango chutney||Green, semi-ripe mango||Mangoes are washed, peeled, sliced, grated and cooked with salt, spices, and vinegar.||Serve as a dressing for salad or a marinade for barbecued meat.|
|Green, semi-ripe mango||Mangoes are washed, peeled, sliced, dried and ground into powder.||Used to flavor samosa fillings, stews, soups, salads, pastries, chutneys, pickles.|
|Puree||Ripe mango||Mangoes are washed, peeled and cut into chunks. Then pulp it in a blender.||Used for re-manufacturing juice, ice-cream, squash, jam, jelly and dehydrated products.|
|Canned mango slices
|Mangoes are washed, peeled, sliced, pasteurized, packed and cap sealed in cans.||As a substitute for fresh mango in the off-season when fresh mangoes are not available.|
(mango juice processing, nectar and squash making)
|Ripe mango||Mangoes are washed, peeled, pulped and mixed with sugar, water & citric acid in various proportions.||Serve as material for making mango shakes, cocktail and mango smoothie.|
|Mango bar||Ripe mango||Mangoes are washed, peeled, pulped and mixed with 15% sugar, 1% calamansi juice and 0.2% sodium erythorbate.Then they’re dried and cut into bars.||Serve as snacks and breakfast.|
Global Mango Market
Mango is India’s national fruit with an annual production of 12750 thousand MT in the worldwide, contributing around 40% of the total world production of mango. Alphonso, one of the Indian mango varieties, is very popular in western countries. For example, Indian mango is usually exported to countries like UAE(56.85%), Nepal(18.79%), UK(6.04%), Saudi Arabia(4.73%), Qatar(4.49%) and Kuwait(2.19%) respectively during the period of 2016-17. This year, a new export destination such as Korea has opened up for Indian mangoes. It is estimated that more shipments will be added to New Zealand, Australia and Korea.
In the first quarter of 2016, mango’s production in Eastern Africa has grown by 27% and its export volume has grown by 30%, reaching roughly 26,000 tonnes. In Kenya, mango is mainly exported to UAE, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and Qatar. Other countries like Tanzania, Somalia, South Africa, UK, France, and Germany are importing Kenya mango, too.
In the United States, mango is imported from Mexico, Nicaragua, and Guatemala. In the first quarter of 2016, mango supply is limited in the U.S. and the prices of Tommy Atkins mango and Tommy Atkins mango have increased. In 2017, a large supply is expected to arrive from Mexico, and it is reported that the U.S. will strength mango trade with Peru this year.