Kiwi fruit can be used to make various kiwi fruit products, such as kiwi jam, kiwi juice concentrate, IQF kiwi fruit, dried kiwi chips, etc. Speaking of how to make kiwi, we are mainly talking about industrial methods, such as by kiwi peeler machine, by kiwi sorter, etc. Kiwi fruit has a high nutritional value and is rich in vitamin C, E, A, potassium, fiber and also contains calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, and carotenoids, flavonoids. Let’s exploit kiwi to the maximum.
I. History of Kiwi Fruit
Kiwifruit is native tothe Yangtze Valley of China. In 1904, kiwifruitseeds were brought to New Zealand by Mary Isabel Frasier. The seeds were planted in 1906 by the nurseryman Alexander Allison, and the vines first fruited in 1910. Thinking it had a gooseberry flavour, people began to call the fruit the Chinese gooseberry. In 1959 the exporter Turners and Growers started calling Chinese gooseberries “kiwifruits”, named after the Kiwi bird of New Zealand.
In 2014, the kiwi fruit was harvested on 219,134 hectares of land. The total production was 3447604 tonnes, with the top 10 producing countries are China(1,84 million tonnes), Italy(506,958 tonnes), New Zealand(410,746 tonnes), Chile, Greece, France, Iran, Turkey, Japan and the United States. Annually around 2.3 billion worth of fresh kiwis are traded internationally.
II. Kiwifruit Species
Kiwifruit is the edible fruit of several species of woody vines in the genus Actinidia. Currently three species are of commercial importance: the fuzzy kiwifruit or A. deliciosa(the green kiwi) and A. chinensis(the yellow kiwi), as well as A. arguta or kiwiberry. The green kiwi has a brown skin covered with short stiff hairs. The yellow kiwi is smooth- skinned and almost hairless. The taste of A. chinensis is sweeter than A. deliciosa and the flavor is more aromatic. Both of them are normally peeled to eat because of the surface hairs and a less tasteful skin. The most widely grown kiwifruit cultivar is A. deliciosa ‘Hayward’ selected in New Zealand in 1925, which has become virtually synonymous with the green kiwi and represents about 90-95% of the international kiwifruit trade. The most widely grown cultivar of A. chinensis is ‘Hort16A’, marketed as ZESPRITM Gold.
Kiwiberry plants can resist temperatures below -30 °C. Because of their frost hardiness, kiwiberry (A. arguta) as well as the less known A. kolomikta and A. polygama are commonly called hardy kiwifruit. The fruit weight of the kiwiberry ranges from 2 to 25 grams, whereas the weight of the fuzzy kiwifruit can reach more than 120 grams. The smooth edible skin is one of the strong commercial aspects of kiwiberry.
III. How to Make Kiwi Fruit Products
Kiwifruit has a stable position in the fresh fruit market. It is also processed to obtain various kiwi fruit products including jams, jellies, marmalades, juice, juice concentrates, wine, purées and canned, frozen or dried slices. Kiwi fruit products can be made by utilizing kiwi sorter, kiwi peeler machine, etc.
3.1 Jams, Jellies and Marmalades
To make kiwi jams, you can wash kiwi, peel kiwi, crush it, boil with pectin and sugar, seal in jars and process in a boiling water bath.
To make kiwi jellies, you can clean kiwi, peel kiwi, puree it, boil with sugar and agar-agar, pour the mixture onto a baking sheet and allow to set for 3 hours, cut into attractive shapes and roll in sugar.
Kiwi marmalades can be made by washing kiwi, peeling kiwi, crushing, mixing with sugar and corn starch, pasteurizing and filling into jars.
3.2 How to Make Kiwi Juice
Kiwi fruit is suitable for making into juice since 83% of it is water. Kiwi juice can be extracted by using a screw juice extractor. The process includes sorting kiwifruit by kiwi sorter, washing, crushing, juice extracting, blending with ingredients, homogenizing, sterilization and canning.
3.3 Kiwi Juice Concentrate
After washing and peeling kiwi fruits, kiwi juice is extracted which is then concentrated by means of vacuum evaporation. Kiwi juice concentrate is used in beverages, cakes, pies, pastries, sauces, yoghurt, ice cream, candy, jams and jellies, etc.
3.4 Kiwi Wine
Kiwi wine is made by controlled fermentation of kiwi juice and subsequent aging. Kiwi wine is excellent on its own or with gazpacho, fresh fruit and salads, etc.
3.5 How to Make Kiwi Puree
For making kiwifruit puree, the fruit is removed of the skin and seeds and then grounded into puree by fruit puree grinding machine. Kiwifruit puree can be used to make beverages, desserts, yoghurts, jams, ice cream, fruit Leathers, etc.
3.6 Canning Kiwifruit
To make canned kiwi, kiwi fruits are washed, peeled, sliced, canned and served chilled or at room temperature.
3.7 Individual Quick Frozen(IQF) Kiwifruit
To make IQF Kiwi, fresh kiwis are sorted by using kiwi sorter, washed, peeled by kiwi peeler machine, sliced or cubed and then subjected to quick freezing to lock in the great taste and nutrition. Then the frozen products are packaged and stored at the necessary temperature to maintain the optimum nutritional characteristics. IQF kiwifruits can be kept for 24 months from date of manufacturing. They are ideal in smoothies, yoghurt, pastries, cakes muffins, pies, ice cream topping, salads, etc.
3.8 Drying Kiwifruit
For making dried kiwis, the fruits are washed, peeled, sliced, coated with sugar syrup and then subjected to hot air drying. The dried slices can be eaten as a snack or used in breakfast cereals, garnishing in cakes, cookies and baked goodies. Kiwifruit also makes an excellent fruit leather by drying fruit puree and other ingredients in hot air dryer.