How Bangladesh Garlic & Ginger Are Processed

Bangladesh garlic

I. Bangladesh Garlic
Garlic is rich in carbohydrates, proteins and phosphorus, and it is helpful to eliminate waste materials and dangerous free-radicals from human body. Garlic is used as a common ingredient in the preparation of meals in Bangladesh for its pungent flavor; and also it is used for many preparations of medicine and health foods.
Garlic is one of the most important spice crops of Bangladesh, and it is the most widely used and cultivated Allium next to onion. Due to the climatic limitation in the country, garlic usually grown during the winter season, between mid-November and December. Among the bulb spices, garlic ranks third in terms of planting area and production. In Bangladesh, the production of garlic covers 7% of the total area of spices, and the average yield of garlic is 4.43 metric tons per hectare. However, the production of garlic is insufficient in Bangladesh. At the same time, increased population means more domestic demand for garlic consumption, and the demand for the local garlic is about 60% of the total demand. So, this country imports large amount of garlic from neighboring country and others to meet up the demand of population.

II. Bangladesh Ginger

Bangladesh ginger

Ginger is a rich source of secondary metabolite, such as oleoresin; it contains 80% water, 2.5% albaminoids, 12.3% carbohydrate, 1% fat and 1.2% minerals. In Bangladesh, ginger is used worldwide as spices for flavoring in many foods and food-products and also used in medicines. It is used in various pickles, curry and cake, and also used in preparing medicine like ayuratic, homeopathic, and allopathic.
Ginger is an important commercial spice crop of Bangladesh. In chittagong Hill tracts region, there is suitable climatic condition, ginger is a leading commercial crop in this region, for ginger’s greater potentiality of growing under proper climatic condition. In Bangladesh, ginger grows well in Rangpur, Niphamari, Khulna, Rangamati, Bandharban and Khagrachori districts. Its growing period is March-May and harvesting period is November-December of the year. The total cultivation area annual production of ginger were 22,400 acres and 74,841 metric tons respectively in 2012(FAO 2012).

III. Bangladesh Garlic and Ginger Processing Condition
It is important to develop and use appropriate technology for processing garlic and ginger products in Bangladesh, because there is no a well-developed market to use high technology, sophisticated machines or equipment, skilled manpower and large capital investment for modern food processing industries as in developed countries.
3.1 Bangladesh Garlic Products
3.1.1 Garlic Paste
As one of the most popular spices in Bangladesh. Fresh garlic and garlic paste are always preferred for preparation of meals for its original flavor and pungency that the dried powder does not have. The paste is also packed for overseas markets.
3.1.2 Preparation and Equipment for Commercial Garlic Paste Production
1. After fresh garlic collection, the bulbs are broken get separated garlic cloves by garlic breaking machine, which is an essential step for further processing of garlic.
2. Then separated garlics are sent to garlic peeling machine to remove their skins.
3. Peeled garlic are ground in a garlic paste making machine.
4. The finished paste is packed for proper storage and marketing.
3.2 Bangladesh Ginger Products
3.2.1 Dried Ginger
Ginger is an important cash principle spice all over the Bangladesh. The dried rhizome prepared from the fresh rhizome is a common form of commerce. It has economic significance in earning valuable foreign exchange, and there are large quantities required during the peak season in the local market. But ginger has high water activity, it can not be kept for a long time after harvesting.
Drying to reduce the moisture of ginger to a right level is a common way for preservation. Proper drying techniques are required to get good quality dried products, and a suitable environment for drying ginger is also required. Drying of ginger can be carried out by open sun drying, solar or mechanical drying to produce quality-stable dried ginger products.
Hot air dehydration is a kind of mechanical drying method that has been largely employed to complete fruits and vegetables preservation. During the processing: ginger is washed remove dirt and other field-damaged portion, and ginger spray washing machine is a special equipment for the product cleaning; and cut into slices of even thickness by ginger slicing machine; and then the sliced ginger is placed on the tray in the hot air drying machine. Ginger slices are dried until they reach in an equilibrium moisture content. Air flow and RH (Relative Humidity) are kept constant in the drier.
In order to obtain high quality dried food, osmotic dehydration is introduced as a pretreatment by immersing product in liquids with lower water activity than that of the product. Through osmotic dehydration before air drying, a certain amount of water content of the product is reduced. Osmotic drying helps decreasing color changes and increasing flavor retention in dried fruits and vegetables. The final product has generally better quality than the dried one without pretreatment.
3.2.2 Ginger Powder and Ginger Paste
Ginger powder and ginger paste are two kinds of pleasant forms for food preparation in Bangladesh with a widespread use in the catering industry as well as in the home, and in the export business to earn valuable foreign exchange. They have a great demand on the local and international market.
The fresh ginger needs processing as that of dried ginger to get dried ginger slices. Dehydrated ginger product is ground in a grinding machine. And ginger powder is obtained. Then the powder is sieved and packaged in high density polythene bags and plastic containers.
After making ginger powder, a required amount of water is added to make ginger paste, and some other ingredients in standard amount are also added, like citric acid, to make an extra flavor. Then ginger paste is packed using density polythene bags and air tight plastic container, and stored at room temperature of 25-30 ℃, or refrigeration temperature of 4-6 ℃. At the same time, ginger paste can be obtained by processing fresh and clean ginger directly by ginger paste making machine.
3.2.3 Ginger Juice
Consumers have higher incomes and more active life styles now, so they are seeking new, convenient and quality food items in the markets. Ginger juice may help fill the needs of consumers for its anticipated wide use. Ginger juice can be used as convenient food flavoring as well as ingredient for ginger juice beverage.
The fresh ginger is washed and cleaned thoroughly with clean water and then the ginger is peeled by ginger peeling machine, chopped fully by multi-function vegetable chopping machine, and blended by a mechanical blending machine. The blended mass is screened by a special filter equipment. Then the ginger juice is collected.
The collected juice can be preserved for use on ginger juice beverage preparation. The juice has to be well mixed with other ingredients that are prepared with a calculated amount, and then the final juice beverage can be bottle packed for sale.